Chances are you don’t start work in the morning without first having a cup (or several) of coffee.
如果不先喝一杯(或幾杯)咖啡,你早上可能沒法開始工作。

But as board-certified sleep specialist and The Power of When author Michael Breus sees it, exactly when you should have caffeine depends on your sleep type.
不過,作為一名經過認證的睡眠專家和《四型生理時鐘》的作者,邁克爾·布勞斯認為,何時攝取咖啡因取決于你的睡眠類型。

When it comes to falling asleep and waking up, Breus has found there are four types of people in the world–or rather, animals: bears, lions, wolves, and dolphins. Each represents a so-called “chronotype” that describes your body’s natural sleep habits and energy patterns. Knowing not to act like a wolf when you’re really a bear, says Breus, can help you have less painful wake-ups, fewer after-lunch slumps, and more productive workdays overall.
布勞斯發現,根據入睡和醒來的時間,世上的人可以分為四種,或者用四種動物來表示,那就是熊、獅子、狼和海豚。每個動物代表一種“睡眠類型”,描述一個人身體的自然睡眠習慣和能量模式。布勞斯表示,如果你是一頭熊,就不要像狼一樣行事,這能幫你減輕起床時的痛苦,減少午餐后的低迷,以及從整體上幫你提高工作效率。

Here’s what an ideal workday might look like, according to Breus, for bears, lions, wolves, and dolphins:
以下是布勞斯推薦的一個理想的工作日作息時間表,分別針對熊、獅子、狼和海豚四種人:

 

Bears are 50%–55% of the population. “They are the ‘get it done’ group,” Breus says. “They have normal sleep schedules, but may not get quite enough sleep.”
占人口的50%到55%。布勞斯表示,“他們屬于執行力很強的人,擁有正常的睡眠作息,但可能睡眠時間不足。”

MORNING ROUTINE: 7 a.m.–11 a.m.
早上例行程序:早上7點至上午11點

  • Wake up and get your blood flowing with 10 minutes of stretching.
    醒來,拉伸10分鐘,讓血液流動起來。
  • Eat a light breakfast: fruit, yogurt, nuts, and a 16-ounce glass of water.
    吃清淡的早餐:水果、酸奶、堅果和一杯16盎司(約468毫升)的水。
  • Take 15 minutes or so to plan your day.
    花15分鐘左右來計劃你的一天。
  • Then you can grab that coffee.
    然后可以拿起那杯咖啡。

PEAK WORKING HOURS: 11 a.m.–6 p.m.
高效工作時間:上午11點至晚上6點

  • Kick off your first period of high alertness with something that takes a lot of focus.
    第一階段是你最清醒的時候,所以可以先做需要高度集中注意力的工作。
  • As your caffeine boost wears off, head outside to pick up lunch on the early side–and soak in some sunlight, which reminds your body that it’s time to be alert and active.
    當咖啡因漸漸失效后,可以稍微提前到外面買午餐,曬曬太陽,讓自己的身體保持清醒和活躍。
  • Lunch, around noon, will give you a second boost of energy for more high-value tasks.
    午餐在中午12點左右,它會為你提供第二波能量,從而讓你能夠應對更多富有價值的任務。
  • Around 2 p.m., your energy will start to ebb, but you’ll be in a great mood. Time for meetings, brainstorms, and a protein-heavy snack to carry you through the afternoon.
    下午兩點左右,你的精力開始下降,但會保持愉快的心情。這段時間可以用來開會,進行頭腦風暴,然后吃一點高蛋白的零食,可以讓你一下午都保持精神。

AFTER WORK: 6 p.m.–10 p.m.
工作后:晚上6點至10點

  • Exercise–knowing that getting started is probably going to be a little tough.
    運動,要知道最難的可能就是開始。
  • After your workout, wind down for a light dinner, and go easy on the carbs.
    鍛煉過后,放松一下,享用一頓簡單的晚餐,注意不要攝入過多的碳水化合物。
  • The period after dinner is prime time to socialize.
    晚餐后是社交黃金時間。

END OF DAY: 10 p.m.–11 p.m.
一天結束:晚上10點至11點

  • Power down at 10 p.m., especially all your devices.
    晚上10點關閉電源,記得關閉你所有的設備。
  • Lights out by 11. Bears find it easy to stay up late, only to struggle with getting up on time the next day.
    在11點前熄燈。對熊來說,熬夜很容易,但是第二天準時起床卻很難。

 

Lions “wake up without an alarm, and it is usually dark out,” Breus explains. Type-A personalities, lions typically “send emails before most people are awake” and represent around 15% of the population.
獅子“不用定鬧鐘,經常天沒亮就起床了”。A型性格的獅子通常在大多數人還沒醒來前就開始發郵件了,這一群體約占人口的15%。

MORNING ROUTINE: 5:30 a.m.–10 a.m.
早上例行程序:清晨5點半至上午10點

  • Lions can wake up easily around 5:30 a.m. without an alarm.
    獅子會在凌晨5點半左右醒來,不需要設置鬧鐘。
  • Have a high-protein breakfast by 6, avoiding carbs if you can.
    6點左右吃一頓富含高蛋白的早餐,盡可能避免碳水化合物。
  • Find a spot to meditate, for up to an hour if you can spare the time, before anybody else gets up.
    如果能騰出時間的話,在其他人醒來前,找個地方冥想,最多一小時。
  • If you’d rather squeeze in an early-morning workout, go for it. But you’ll have energy to do this later in the day if you’d prefer.
    如果你想早上鍛煉一下,就去鍛煉好了。不過其實之后你還會有時間和精力去鍛煉的。
  • Time for a coffee at 9 a.m.
    9點時喝杯咖啡。

PEAK WORKING HOURS: 10 a.m.–5 p.m.
高效工作時間:上午10點至下午5點

  • Breakfast was already three or four hours ago! So eat a small snack like a protein bar.
    早餐過去已經三四個小時了!可以吃點小零食,比如蛋白棒。
  • Dive into your work to make the most of your peak productivity time: morning meetings, calls–or chip away at a couple of big strategic tasks.
    投入工作,利用好效率最高的這段時間,適合開晨間會議、電話會議,或者是做一些重大決策工作。
  • Instead of hitting up a business mixer after hours (you’ll be drained by then), schedule a networking meeting or a catch-up with a coworker over lunch.
    一連工作幾個小時后,避免參加職場交際活動(到時候你已經筋疲力盡了),可以在午餐期間安排交際活動或者找一位同事聊天。
  • From 1–2:30 p.m., slide into solo work or do some brainstorming.
    從下午一點到兩點半,開始單獨工作,或頭腦風暴。
  • After 3 p.m. or so, shift focus for the easier, more administrative tasks–nothing intensely detailed or mentally taxing.
    下午三點以后,轉移焦點,開始做一些容易的、不太細致或是不需要耗費腦力的行政工作。

AFTER WORK: 5 p.m.–9:30 p.m.
工作后:下午5點至晚上9點半

  • If you can, ditch the office on the early side, by 4:30 or 5, since your energy will start to dip by mid-afternoon.
    如果可以的話,到4點半或5點就提前結束辦公,因為下午過半,你的精力已經開始下降了。
  • That’s also a great time to work out if you haven’t yet, and it’ll give you a slight energy boost to carry you into the evening.
    如果你早上沒有鍛煉的話,這個時間適合用來鍛煉,運動會提升你的精力,讓你到晚上仍舊保持活力。
  • Make sure dinner is an even balance of protein, healthy fats, and carbs.
    確保晚餐平衡蛋白質、健康脂肪和碳水化合物的攝入。

END OF DAY: 9:30 p.m.–10:30 p.m.
一天結束:晚上9點半至10點半

  • You may still have some energy left to spend time with family or hang with friends, but you’ll want to keep it low impact.
    你可能還有精力與家人共度時光,或者和朋友交往,但是要保持低負荷活動。
  • Hit the hay by 10:30.
    在10點半以前上床睡覺。

 

Wolves represent 15–20% of the population, says Breus. “They hate mornings and usually hit the snooze button multiple times. They are late to work, and usually on their third cup of coffee at 9 a.m.” Wolves tend to go hard on caffeine in the mornings in order to “overcome their wolfishness,” Breus explains.
占人口的15%到20%。布勞斯說:“他們討厭早起,經常早上按幾次貪睡按鈕還是爬不起來。他們上班晚到,9點已經開始喝第三杯咖啡了。”狼在早上會攝入大量咖啡因,布勞斯的解釋是,這是為了“克服狼性”。

MORNING ROUTINE: 7:30 a.m.–12 p.m.
早上例行程序:早上7點半至中午12點

  • Set your alarm for around 7, but let yourself hit snooze so you can sleep in for another 20–30 minutes, then crawl out of bed. It’s not going to be fun.
    把鬧鐘定在早上7點左右,鬧鐘響了之后按貪睡按鈕,再睡20到30分鐘,然后爬下床。這個過程一點也不有趣。
  • Go stand in front of a window and drink a 16-ounce glass of water. The sunlight will help you wake up as you rehydrate.
    站在窗前,喝一杯16盎司(約468毫升)的水,補充身體水分,曬曬陽光,幫助自己清醒過來。
  • Throw on your sneakers and go for a 20–40-minute walk or a bike ride around the neighborhood. This might be a good time to brainstorm.
    穿上運動鞋,在附近散步或騎行20到40分鐘。這也是頭腦風暴的好時機。
  • Don’t open your email yet or start interacting with coworkers, just draw up your to-do list for the day.
    不要打開電子郵件,也不要和同事交流,先開始制定一天的待辦事項清單。
  • At 11 a.m., you can finally grab that coffee–and it doesn’t hurt to catch a few more minutes of sunlight again if you’re able to.
    上午11點,喝杯咖啡,可以的話再出去曬幾分鐘太陽。

PEAK PRODUCTIVITY: 12 p.m.–8 p.m.
高效工作時間:中午12點至晚上8點

  • Knock out busywork until lunchtime, around 1 p.m.
    忙碌工作,到下午一點左右再去吃午餐。
  • By 2 p.m., you’ll be at the top of your game. Switch to the tough tasks on your to-do list, or pull your team together for a big group brainstorm.
    下午兩點是你一天中精力最旺盛的時候。切換到工作清單中艱難的事項,或者是把團隊拉到一起開始集體頭腦風暴。
  • At 5 p.m., you’ll still be going strong. Have a snack and keep working. You’re at your most creative and energized through early evening, even after some of your coworkers have gone home.
    下午5點,你還是精神飽滿。吃點零食,繼續工作。傍晚時分是你一天中最有創造力和精力最旺的時刻,即便這個時候你的一些同事都已經下班回家了。

AFTER WORK: 8 p.m.–11 p.m.
工作后:晚上8點至11點

  • After winding down your workday, you can exercise around 7 or 8 p.m.
    結束一天的工作后,你可以在晚上7點或8點去鍛煉。
  • Then have a late dinner, around 8 or even 9 p.m.
    鍛煉結束后再吃晚餐,晚餐時間大概在8點甚至9點左右。

END OF DAY: 11 p.m.–12 a.m.
一天結束:晚上11點至12點

  • Start powering down all your screens by 11.
    到晚上11點的時候就開始關閉所有的電子屏幕。
  • You’ll be able to stay up late into the night if you aren’t careful, so commit to lights-out by midnight.
    你一不小心就會熬夜,所以睡眠時間到了就要熄燈。

 

Dolphins “are anxious people who have irregular sleep schedules,” according to Breus, who estimates that one in 10 people are dolphins. “They often self-diagnose as insomniacs and send emails all night long.”
海豚屬于“睡眠作息不規律的焦慮人士”,按照布勞斯的說法,十個人當中有一個是海豚。“他們自認為患有失眠癥,可以發郵件發一整個晚上。”

MORNING ROUTINE: 6 a.m.–10 a.m.
早上例行程序:早上6點至上午10點

  • Jump out of bed and into your running shoes. Break a light sweat and get some sun.
    快速起床,跑步出點汗,曬曬太陽。
  • Take a cool shower by 7:30 to avoid getting drowsy again.
    在7點半之前沖個冷水澡,以免再次昏昏欲睡。
  • Grab breakfast around 8 a.m.: half carbs, half protein, no caffeine (yet).
    8點左右吃早餐:半碳水、半蛋白,暫時不要喝咖啡。
  • Think through your goals for the day or sketch out a to-do list, but wait to socialize with your coworkers until your first coffee break.
    想一想當天的目標或是列個待辦事項清單,在上午第一次休息喝咖啡的時候再和同事交際。

PEAK PRODUCTIVITY: 10 a.m.–6 p.m.
高效工作時間:上午10點至晚上6點

  • Have a small coffee by 9:30 or 10, but make sure it’s half decaf. You’ll need less of a boost than you think.
    在9點半和10點的時候喝一小杯咖啡,確保是半咖啡因的。你不需要攝入太多咖啡因來打起精神。
  • Between 10 a.m. and noon is peak creativity time, so work on the harder, big-picture goals you’ve set for the day.
    上午10點到中午這段時間的你最有創造力,所以這段時間你要做比較艱難的重要工作。
  • After lunch, by around 1 p.m, you’ll be fading, so leave your desk and get some direct sunlight and fresh air for at least 15 minutes.
    午餐后,下午一點左右,你的精力開始消退,這時候可以暫時離開辦公桌,花至少15分鐘出去曬曬太陽,呼吸新鮮空氣。
  • You’ll be at your most alert by late afternoon. Plug away at detailed tasks until 6 p.m.
    傍晚前這段時間是你一天中最為清醒的時刻。可以利用晚上6點前這段時間去做細致的工作。

AFTER WORK: 6 a.m.–10 p.m.
工作后:晚上6點至10點

  • Grab a banana and head to yoga class. Avoid a high-intensity workout, which might wind up keeping you awake longer than you’d like.
    吃根香蕉,然后去上瑜伽課。避免高強度鍛煉,不然晚上會很難入睡。
  • Dinner at 7, and consider using this time to chat with a partner, spouse, or friend. Dolphins find evening mealtime ideal for resolving conflicts and thinking through big ideas with others.
    7點吃晚餐,并考慮在這段時間和伴侶、配偶或朋友聊天。海豚會發現晚餐時間是化解沖突以及和其他人溝通重大想法的好時機。

END OF DAY: 10 p.m.–12 a.m.
一天結束:晚上10點至12點

  • By 10 p.m., begin a bedtime ritual that can help you wind down: Turn off your smartphone and resist the urge to watch TV before bed. Run a hot bath and take a soak to relax instead.
    到晚上10點,開始一個可以幫助你放松的睡前儀式:關閉智能手機,控制睡前看電視的沖動,可以選擇泡一泡熱水澡來放松自己。
  • If TV is how you unwind, try to limit it to 90 minutes or so.
    如果看電視是你放松的方式,那么盡量控制在90分鐘以內。
  • Drift off by midnight, but try not to beat yourself up if you find yourself staring at the ceiling for awhile first. You may have trouble falling asleep, but chances are you’ll still be getting the shut-eye you need.
    半夜時漸漸入睡,如果發現自己一開始盯著天花板很長時間難以入睡,也不要太過焦慮,閉上眼你還是可以獲得你需要的休息。

 

(翻譯:Frank)