?

閱讀理解能力是一種習得的技能。要求讀者能夠流暢閱讀、保持專注并批判性地思考書籍或文本的內容。然而,不幸的是,許多學生在理解文本方面十分吃力。有些人,不能從細節處發現文章主旨,而有些人則根本不明白這本書究竟在講什么。因此,幫助學生提高閱讀理解能力,事關學生教育的成敗。可以使用以下十個有效的提示和策略,來幫助學生提升閱讀理解能力。

1. Read Aloud
1.大聲朗讀

While some might think of a teaching reading aloud as something that only happens in elementary classrooms, there is evidence that reading aloud also benefits middle and high school students as well.
也許,有些人認為,大聲朗讀的學習方法僅適用于小學階段。但是,相關研究表明,大聲朗讀的學習方法同樣適用于初中生和高中生。

2. Stop and Ask Questions to Yourself as You Read
2.暫停閱讀并提出問題

A good strategy to teach struggling readers is that instead of just rushing through a passage or chapter, they should stop and ask themselves questions. Doing this can help them focus on the main ideas and increase the student's engagement with the material.
對那些苦于閱讀的讀者來說,與其草草讀完一段文章或一回小說,不如暫時停下來反思自己有什么問題。這么做有助于讀者關注主旨,增強學生對閱讀材料的參與性。

3. Talk with Someone Else About What Is Being Read
3.和他人討論閱讀的內容

Having students stop periodically and discuss what has just been read can reveal any issues with understanding and can reinforce what is being taught.
定期讓學生停下來與他人討論所讀內容,能夠暴露所有難以理解之處并鞏固所學內容。

4. Look at the Headings and Other Information before You Begin
4.讀前查看標題及其他信息

An excellent strategy that soon becomes second nature is to have struggling students read through all the headings and subheadings in any chapter that they have been assigned. This information can help them gain an overview of what they will be learning as they read the chapter.
對一些閱讀能力欠佳的學生來說,將閱讀前瀏覽章節標題和副標題的技巧培養成習慣,這件事并不難。該信息有助于學生在閱讀過程中對將要學習的內容有一個總體的認知。

5. Keep Paper Handy for Notes and Questions
5.備好本子記錄要點和疑問

Students should read a chapter with paper and pen in hand. They can then take notes, write down questions they think of, and create a vocabulary list of all the highlighted words in the chapter along with any unfamiliar terms that they need to define.
閱讀時,學生應備好紙筆,以便記下要點和思考的問題。還可以列出本章節的重點單詞以及任何需要定義的不熟悉的術語。

6. Learn to Cluster Words
6.學習聚類詞匯

Clustering is a skill that increases reading comprehension by having students learn to read groups of words that form phrases or fit together semantically into one cluster.
聚類,是一種通過讓學生學習閱讀構成短語的單詞組或在語義上合并到一個聚類的方式來增強個人閱讀理解能力的技能。

7. Use Graphic Organizers as You Read
7.閱讀時運用圖表

Some students find that graphic organizers like webs and concept maps can greatly enhance reading comprehension. These allow students to identify areas of focus and main ideas in a reading.
一些學生認為,使用諸如網絡和概念地圖的圖表能夠大大提升自己的閱讀理解能力。這些圖表便于學生在閱讀過程中找到需要關注的重點和主要思想。

8. Practice PQ4R
8.練習PQ4R閱讀法

This consists of six steps: Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review. Preview has students scan the material to get an overview. Question means that students should ask themselves questions as they read. The four R's have students read the material, reflect on what has just been read, recite the major points to yourself, and then finally go back over the material and see if you can answer the questions you previously asked.
該方法包含六個步驟:預覽、提問、閱讀、思考、背誦、回顧。預覽要求學生瀏覽材料,對相關材料產生整體的認知。提問是指學生在閱讀時應提出問題。四個R分別要求學生閱讀材料、思考剛剛讀過的內容、記憶要點、最終回歸材料,檢驗自己能否回答之前所提的問題。

9. Stop and Summarize
9.暫停閱讀并總結

As students read, have them periodically stop their reading and summarize what they have just read. This will aid in their understanding of the material being covered.
定期要求學生暫停閱讀,總結已讀內容。這么做有利于深化學生對已讀內容的理解。

10. Write Questions about the Material
10.寫出與材料相關的檢測題

After students have read a passage, have them go back and write questions that could be included in a quiz or test on the material. This will require them to look at the information in a different manner.
要求學生讀畢后回歸材料,并寫出與材料相關的檢測題。這意味著學生將以不同的方式閱讀信息。

聲明:本雙語文章的中文翻譯系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文翻譯僅代表譯者個人觀點,僅供參考。如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。