Reading rates
阅读速度

Each type of reading has a different rate;?an exciting novel is a quicker read than a text in biology.
阅读不同的文章应该采用不同的阅读速度。阅读一本精彩的小说所需的阅读速度应该比阅读一本生物学的著作要快。

Text books vary in how well they are written;as a consequence some are more difficult to read.
课本上的文章写得有好有坏,所以有些文章更为难读,阅读速度也就更慢。

Each semester, time yourself reading a chapter?in each of your text books. See how many pages an hour you can read. Once you have an accurate estimate of your reading rate, you can better plan your reading time and studying time.
每个学期,你都应该记录一下自己阅读各种课本上一章内容所花的时间。看看一个小时的时间里你能读完多少页。当你能准确的估算自己的阅读速度,你就能更好的安排自己的阅读时间和学习时间了。

Comprehension
阅读理解

Scan the chapter first.
先浏览一下全文的段落章节。

Identify the sections to which the author devotes the most amount of space. If there are lots of diagrams for a particular concept, then that must also be an important concept. If you're really pressed for time, skip the sections to which the least amount of space is devoted.
找到作者不惜笔墨、用大量篇幅创作的章节。如果作者用了许多图表来解释一个概念,那么这?#27426;?#20063;是一个非常重要的概念。如果你的时间确实很紧,可以跳过篇幅最少的段落。

Read the first sentence of every paragraph more carefully than the rest of the paragraph.
对每段文字的段首句,要比此段其他的句子更仔细的阅读。

Take notes on headings and first sentence of each paragraph before reading the chapter itself.
在阅读一个章节之前,先注意一下章节标题,以及每段话的段首句。

Then close your book and ask yourself what you now know about the subject that you didn't know before you started.
在阅读完一章内容之后,合上书,问?#39318;?#24049;,关于文章的主题,你获得了那些在阅读之前所不知道的知识点?

Focus on nouns and main propositions in each sentence. Look for the noun-verb combinations, and focus your learning on these.
在读每句话的时候,注意名词和主要的代词。找到句子中的主谓搭配,集中精力学习这些部分。

实例示范:

For example, consider the following text:
例如,阅读如下文段:

Classical conditioning is learning that takes place when we come to associate two stimuli in the environment. One of these stimuli triggers a reflexive response. The second stimulus is originally neutral with respect to that response, but after it has been paired with the first stimulus, it comes to trigger the response in its own right.
经典条件反射作为一种认知活动,是在我们将两种刺激源相互关联并置于?#27426;?#29615;境中的时候产生的。第一种刺激源会激发一种自发的反应,第二种刺激源原本对产生同样的反应是无效的,但是当它与第一种刺激源想结合的时候,它就能够激发同样的反应了。

Rather than read every word, you might decode this text graphically:
你可以分节理解这段文字,而不用逐?#31181;?#23383;的阅读:

Classical conditioning = learning = associating two stimuli
经典条件反射=认知活动=将两种刺激源相互关联

1st stimulus triggers a response
第一种刺激源激发反应

2nd stimulus = originally neutral, but paired with 1st --> triggers response.
第二种刺激源=原本无效,但是与第一种结合的时候-->能够激发反应

Rather than reading and re-reading your text, take notes in this form, so that you've re-written the important parts of the text. Once you have written notes, you don't have to worry about the text itself.
与其一遍一遍的反复阅读,你可以用这?#20013;问?#26469;记笔记,如此以来,你就已经将文章中重要的部分记下来了。一旦你记下了笔记,就不用再纠结怎么读这段文字本身了。