Whatever your reason for putting words on the page, and whatever your style, there are some universal tips that will help you tailor your message and improve your writing:
無論寫作是出于什么原因,采用何種風格,都有通用的寫作建議來幫你調整信息,改善寫作:

1?Be clear about your purpose
1 明確目的

The most basic question to ask yourself before you start is why you are writing. In an academic essay or assignment, your purpose is to convey information and facts and draw conclusions. In a letter of complaint you will be looking for a specific result, such as a refund. Keep your purpose in mind at all times to avoid going off topic. Even better: write it down in as few words as possible, print it out, and keep it next to you as you write.
開始寫作前最基本的問題就是問清自己為何寫作。寫學術論文旨在傳達信息、舉例論證并得出結論。寫投訴信則旨在尋求結果,比如要求退款。你要時刻記住寫作目的以防跑題。更好的做法是:把目的用盡量簡短的話寫下來,或者打印出來,寫作的時候放在身邊。

2?Choose the appropriate style
2 選擇合適的風格

In conversation, we instinctively adapt what we say and how we say it to suit the people we are talking to. We talk to our manager or lecturer in one way, to friends in another, and so on. For good writing it is essential to do the same: choose a writing style and words that the people for whom you are writing will feel comfortable with and react well to.
在談話時,我們會自覺的選擇說話的內容和方式以適應不同的對象。我們和經理或者老師交流采用一種方式,和朋友用另一種方式,等等。一篇好的文章就如同談話:選擇讓閱讀者感到舒適并能給予良好回應的風格和措辭。

3?Start with a plan
3 擬定提綱

Far too often people write without a plan. The result is often disjointed writing, with parts that don’t connect. Whether you are writing a 10,000-word report or a letter of complaint, creating a clear plan and structure is the crucial first step to getting your message across quickly and in the most effective way. Mindmapping, or organizing information visually with diagrams, can be a useful tool.
人們寫作常不擬提綱,結果導致寫作各部分不連貫。不論你寫的是萬字報告還是投訴信函,擬寫作提綱和寫作結構都是至關重要的第一步,它能使你的思想快速有效地被他人理解。思維導圖和采用可視圖表組織信息都是不錯的方法。

4?Write for readers, not yourself
4 寫給讀者看而不是自己

Your aim in writing is to communicate ideas and information to other people, and you must keep that in mind with every word and sentence you write. Because?you?have a clear idea about what and why you are writing, it is easy to get carried away and include information that is important to you only—and nobody else. If you write it you could well be wasting your time and other people’s.
寫作的目的是要向他人傳遞思想與信息,寫一詞一句你都要牢記這一點。你了解自己寫作的內容和原因,因此,很容易跑偏,寫的信息只對自己有用而對他人毫無用處。這樣不僅浪費自己的時間,也浪費他人的時間。

5?Guide readers through what you write
5 引導讀者閱讀

Your task is to help readers understand your message quickly and precisely. To do this, it is necessary to show them clearly how the different parts relate to each other. Each sentence, each paragraph should be relevant to what comes before and what comes after. You should use words and phrases that connect or contrast to show these connections, for example,?as a result,?in this way,?in contrast. Informative headings also help readers follow your train of thought, so don’t be afraid to use them.
寫作過程中你的任務是幫助讀者快速準確地理解你的思想。為此,有必要向讀者清晰地展示各個部分如何銜接。每個句子、每個段落都應與上下文有關。你應使用互相聯系或互相轉折的單詞或短語來銜接,如:as a result(結果是),?in this way(這樣),?in contrast(相反)。小標題也能幫助讀者跟上你的思路,可以試著用一用。

6?Use passive verbs appropriately
6 適度使用被動語態

In certain types of writing, such as scientific contexts, passive verbs are appropriate and widely used. But in more general writing people often use them inappropriately, or overuse them. The problem is that they can make writing sound impersonal when it needs to be personal because they highlight the action rather than the person performing it. But very often who is performing the action is a crucial part of the message.
在有關科技等的文章中被動語被使用較頻繁,也適合使用被動態,但在普通文章中被動態常被誤用與濫用。主要問題是使用被動態會使本應該具有主觀性的文章變得客觀,因為被動態強調動作而非動作的執行者。但是往往誰做了這件事本身就是一個很重要的信息。

聲明:本雙語文章的中文翻譯系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文翻譯僅代表譯者個人觀點,僅供參考。如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。